• For a People’s Britain not a Bankers’ Britain
    A film using archive, music and interviews/speeches filmed at a Morning Star national conference held in 2012, to construct an argument against the ConDem government and its policies and for a positive alternative to cuts and austerity.(30 mins DVCam 2013)
  • NUT Conference 2013
    Three short films for the National Union of Teachers on: what’s wrong with the Michael Gove proposals for the curriculum, magic moments in teaching and on the particular problems facing Welsh teachers.(5 mins total running time DVCam 2013)
  • Join Us, Join Labour – Make A Difference
    A film for the GMB general trade union encouraging members to become politically active.(9 mins 2013)
  • RMT Education Centre, Doncaster
    A film celebrating the role of the National Education Centre in fulfilling RMT’s commitment to learning.(8 mins 2013)
  • Network Rail Safety Reps
    A film on the groundbreaking deal between RMT/TSSA and Network Rail which has created six lead union health and safety reps.(9 mins 2013)
  • Don’t Let The Truth Get in the Way of a Good Story
    A film looking at the troubled relationship between the RMT and the capitalist media.(12 mins 2013)


  • Roger Seifert
    RMT’s guest speaker to deliver the 2012 Charles Watkins Memorial Lecture was labour movement academic Professor Roger Seifert, whose challenging contribution was entitled ‘Strikers, communists, tramps and detectives – lessons from the 1966 seafarers’ dispute.’(57 mins 2012)
  • NUT October 20th
    Two short videos for the NUT filmed at the October 20th TUC demonstration, one called ‘5 reasons to become a school rep’ and the other ‘5 reasons to oppose the cuts’ .(2.5 mins total running time 2012)
  • Colin Waugh
    RMT’s guest speaker to deliver the 2011 Charles Watkins Memorial Lecture was Colin Waugh, author of the pamphlet ‘Plebs’: the Lost Legacy of Independent Working-Class Education, which was produced in 2009 to mark the centenary of the ‘strike’ by students at Ruskin College in Oxford in 1909. Colin looks at the origins and consequences of the strike and argues for the rebuilding of the IWCE tradition in modern conditions.(19 mins 2012)
  • We’re All In It Together
    A film promoting a 33 track benefit double CD for the Morning Star which includes tracks by Jackie Leven, Michael Weston King, Thea Gilmore and Phil Burdett.(7 mins 2012)
  • Five Is Too Young to Fail
    A short film for the NUT arguing their case against the Coalition government’s proposed introduction of compulsory phonics reading tests for five and six year olds.(3.5 mins 2012)
  • RMT at TUC Conference 2012
    A report on RMT’s presence at the TUC Conference 2012.(6 mins 2012)
  • Burston Strike School
    A short film of the annual commemoration of the Burston Strike School which was at the centre of the longest strike in British history lasting from 1914 – 1939. It began when progressive teachers at the village’s school were sacked and schoolchildren went on strike in their support. The sacked teachers, the Higdons, set up an alternative school which was attended by 66 of their 72 former pupils.(7 mins 2012)
  • Kazakhstan – Workers’ Rights Under Fire
    Esenbeck Ukteshbayer, President of the independent trade union Zhanartu talks to delegates at the RMT AGM 2012 about the campaign to end repression in Kazakhstan.For more information visit www.campaignkazakhstan.com(7 mins 2012)
  • RMT at World Pride
    RMT members talk about the importance of RMT’s presence atthe march celebrating 40 years of pride in London.(4 mins 2012)
  • A call to RMT members Nationalisation Not Privatisation.Why all RMT members should make every attempt to attend the demonstration in Brussels on March 28, 2012.(RMTV 6.5 mins 2012)
  • Free the Miami Five
    A report of the annual vigil outside the US Embassy to protest at the jailing of five Cubans by the US government falsely accused of espionage.(RMTV 5 minutes 2012)
  • A Message to London Underground Train Operators from RMT
    This DVD shows how RMT supports train operators and their colleagues on the London Underground network. It urges those who are not members to join the all-grades union to defend their jobs and conditions.(7 mins BetaSP/DV 2012)
  • For Bread and Liberty
    Former NUS activist and RMT Executive member Stuart Hyslop takes a look at an event in the history of the Sindicato Dos Marineiros Mercantes De Portugal, when a seafarer opponent of the Salazar dictatorship lived in the union’s building for two years, painting murals which survive on the walls today. He would disappear into a secret room when the police searched the building.(RMTV 3 minutes 2012)
  • Fair Pensions For All
    A short film for the National Union of Teachers arguingagainst the government’s proposed changes to teachers’ pension rights.(3.5 mins 2012)


  • Save Our Railways – Say No To McNulty
    On Tuesday 25th October 2011, RMT organised a rally and lobby of parliament to protest at the proposed attacks on rail workers’ jobs and pay and conditions contained within the McNulty report.(RMTV 5 minutes 2011)
  • Slavery – Shame of the Past and Modern Curse
    A commemorative event looking at the history of slavery organised by RMT’s National Black and Ethnic Minority Committee.(RMTV 7 minutes 2011)
  • A Union With Pride
    A profile of the RMT National Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender members Advisory Committee.(7 minutes DVD 2011)
  • We Can Do It
    The story of the RMT National Womens’ Advisory Committee, and the vital role it plays in promoting womens’ issues.Made for RMTV.(7 minutes DVD 2011)
  • Unite And Fight
    A look at the work of the RMT Black and Ethnic Minority Members’ Advisory Committee and its importance to the union.Made for RMTV(7 minutes DVD 2011)
  • We Are The Future
    A film in which young members talk about their experiences and what it means to them to be an RMT member.(7 minutes DVD 2011)
  • Cuba Garden Party 2011
    (RMTV 10 minutes 2011)
  • RMT at May Day 2011
    RMT general secretary Bob Crow, president Alex Gordon and other officials and activistsdiscuss the importance of May Day against the backdrop of the annual workers’ daymarch and rally in London.
    (RMTV 5 minutes 2011)
  • The Banner Man
    Derek Kotz of RMT’s Communications Department meets Ed Hall, the man whose quiet dedication is the driving force behind a revival of one of the labour movements’ most vibrant traditions, and looks forward to an RMT sponsored exhibition of his work.(14 minutes DVD May 2011)
  • RMT March for the Alternative March 26th 2011
    RMT mobilised its own largecontingent for the TUC-organised 500,000-strong March for the Alternative throughLondon on March 26, 2011. The demonstration sent a clear message to the ConDem government that its savage programme of cuts is unacceptable to the British public.Music by Captain Ska (with permission).(RMTV 5 minutes 2011)
  • Reinstate Eamonn Lynch and Arwyn Thomas
    A film calling for support for industrial action at London Underground over the victimisation of drivers and union reps Eamonn Lynch and Arwyn Thomas.(RMTV 7 minutes 2011)
  • Justice for the Shrewsbury Pickets
    A film re-examining the political events surrounding the arrest of 24 Shrewsbury building workers and the shocking imprisonment of three of them, six months after the successful 1972 building workers’ strike. The film includes film material from the original campaign to free Des Warren and Ricky Tomlinson (star of TVs Royle Family), jailed for three years and two years on conspiracy charges after the original criminal charges were dropped.(45 minutes BetaSP/DVCam 2011)
  • 90 Years Of Struggle for the Working Class and Humanity
    A specially produced documentary which charts the 90 year history of Britain’s Communist Party. Featuring previously unseen interviews, footage and much more.(60 minutes BetaSP/DVCam/DVD 2011)
  • CP Election Broadcasts 2011
    PPBs for the Welsh Assembly and council elections in both English and Welsh.(2 x 4’ 40” DVCam 2011)
  • Newborn To Nursery
    An informational film to be shown in health centres, community centres and children’s centres to promote health and family support services that prepare children for school life at the age of five years.(30 minutes DVCam 2011)
  • The Daily Miracle
    A film about the Morning Star, previously the Daily Worker, founded in 1930 and still the world’s only English-language socialist daily newspaper. The DVD tells a story of right-wing opposition to and attempted closures and boycotts of the paper, but also trade union support and the drama of the daily production and distribution of what is a unique paper with a vital role in the labour movement.Commissioned by the People’s Press Printing Society(28 minutes DVCam/BetaSP 2010)
  • RMT Credit Union – Why Join?
    This DVD explains the aims and objectives of RMT’s Credit Union and the financial services it offers to all members of the union. It shows that the Credit Union is owned and democratically controlled by RMT members, and how it responds to members’ changing needs. Join today! www.rmt.org.uk/creditunion.(13 minutes BetaSP/DVCam 2012)
  • Join the Union for Youth, Community and Play Workers
    A recruitment DVD made for CYWU, now part of UNITE, explaining what it offers to youth, community, play and workers in related fields.(17 minutes BetaSP/DVD 20)


  • RMT Garden Party for Cuba
    On June 22nd RMT held its 8th annual Aid for Cuba Garden Party at Maritime House, Clapham. Speakers included Bob Crow, Len McCluskey and the Cuban Ambassador and there were dance beats from Cuba and the Alabama 3.(RMTV 10 minutes DVCam June 2010)
  • Celebrate May Day 2010
    A call to RMT members and others to join the annual International Workers’ Day London demonstration and rally.For RMTV.(10 minutes DVCam May 2010)
  • Stop London Underground Jobs Cull
    A report from a Public Meeting to oppose London Underground’s job cuts. Organised by RMT London Transport Regional Council. Speakers include Bob Crow, RMT General Secretary, Gerry Doherty, TSSA General Secretary, Janine Booth, RMT Stations and Revenue Rep and Steve Hedley, London Regional Organiser.For RMTV.(9 minutes DVCam March 2010)
  • RMT/TSSA Press Conference
    For RMTV.(10 minutes DVCam March 25th 2010)


  • Celebrating 50 Years of the Cuban Revolution
    RMT General Secretary Bob Crow is joined by Alabama 3, the band behind the Sopranos theme song ‘Woke Up This Morning’, Aleida Guevara, Che Geuvara’s daughter, labour movement legend Tony Benn and other guests for the 7th Annual Garden Party for Cuba which this year marks the 50th anniversary of the Cuban revolution.For RMTV.(10 minutes DVCam August 2009)
  • Only A Bookseller
    Jack Firestein was a bookseller with bookstalls outside the Camden Labour Centre, in Unity Theatre foyer and shops in the East End, Willesden and Soho. He was also a driver to Clive Jenkins, General Secretary of the Association of Scientific, Technical and managerial Staffs from the 1970s to 2000. Jack was a strong Jewish anti-fascist who took part in the Cable Street opposition to Moseley. He fought, was wounded and captured at Anzio and won a Military Medal in WW2. But Jack will be best remembered as a fearless labour movement activist spanning more than seventy years. He was in the Communist Party and then the Camden Labour Party. He was one of the first members of Unity Theatre and ran the Unity Folk Club that is still going today. He was on every Aldermaston March with his singers. He was a founder member of the London Socialist Film Co-op. He stuck his neck out for many local causes.The film has interviews with Jack, friends, colleagues and family and amateur and archive film footage. The music is an assortment of folk and protest songs loved by Jack.(55 minutes Beta SP/DVD 2009)
  • NO2EU-Yes To Democracy
    European Election Broadcast 2009 – No2EU – Yes to Democracy is a trade union backed alliance of political parties and campaigning groups which believes the time is right to offer the peoples of Britain an alternative view of Europe.(4’ 40” DVCam June 2009)


  • A message to all train drivers
    Why all train drivers should unite with fellow rail workers in an all-grades trade union.Made for RMT.(8 mins DVCam February 2008)
  • No To EU Liberalisation Yes To Workers’ Rights
    This DVD explains RMT opposition to European Union rail privatisation. It shows that the EU project aims to enshrine neo-liberal economics as a constitutional goal, and give Brussels huge legal powers to ensure it is implemented, ignoring popular expressions of disapproval. It tells how rail workers in Britain witnessed what this means after their industry was privatised in 1996 along the lines of EU Directive 91/440. This directive and the various rail packages that have followed demand the splitting or rail operations from infrastructure and fragments rail networks to allow the development of private rail monopolies. These moves undermine rail safety and national collective bargaining. To further undermine union resistance to social dumping across the EU, the European Court of Justice has made a number of rulings outlawing previously legitimate industrial action. The film calls for EU wide opposition to neo-liberal directives that hand our public services to the private sector, and support for workers’ rights and national democracy.(42 minutes BetacamSP/DVCam/DVD 2008)


  • Rail Against Privatisation
    A film of the two-week mobile demonstration from Glasgow to London by 25 RMT railway workers in the run-up to the May 2005 General Election. The marchers travelled through 14 cities, leafletting the public and holding marches, press conferences and rallies in favour of the re-nationalisation of their industry.

    Commissioned by the National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers.

    (60 mins BetaSP/DV/DVD 2005)

  • RMT Induction DVD
    A DVD for use by RMT activists in induction courses for new entrants into the industries they represent. Presented by comedian Mark Thomas, the DVD outlines the range of services the RMT offers to its members.Commissioned by the National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers.(8 mins BetaSP/DV/DVD 2005)
  • RMT – Your Union
    A promotional and recruitment DVD in which Sue Johnston looks at the history, aims and objectives of the fast-growing transport union the RMT. The union produced 100,000 copies – one for each member and one for every new member over the next two years.Commissioned by the National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers.(35 mins BetaSP/DV/DVD 2005)


  • Strategy For Growth
    A film/DVD for internal use by the Transport & General Workers Union in which T&G general secretary Tony Woodley and deputy general secretary Jack Dromey spell out their strategy for the union.Commissioned by the TGWU.(2hrs 20 mins BetaSP/DV 2004)


  • Why War – The Invasion of Iraq
    A film exploring the background to Bush and Blair’s invasion and occupation of Iraq and the murky motives behind the political rhetoric. Narrated by Prunella Scales, this film includes material from Iraq never previously shown in this country, unique footage of the anti-war protests and exclusive interviews with leading commentators from both Britain and Iraq.With contributions from Tony Benn, Noam Chomsky, Bianca Jagger, George Galloway, Greg Palast, George Monbiot, Milan Rai, Lindsey German, John Rees and many others, the video explores the global dangers of George Bush’s “war on terrorism” and the reasons Tony Blair supported the invasion of Iraq.(50 minutes DV/Beta SP 2003)
  • Systems In A Theme Park
    A film for GCSE and A Level students examining the information technology systems which run Drayton Manor theme park near Birmingham.Commissioned by TV Choice.(27 mins BetaSP/DV 2003)
  • The Human Shields
    A film about the journey of peace activists who travelled from London to Baghdad in January 2003 in a bid to avert war, the support they found along the way, and the disturbing realities they discovered in a country on the brink of invasion. Hundreds of other ‘human shields’ were inspired to go to Iraq, and many stayed as US bombs began to drop.What difference did they make?(50 mins BetaSP/DV 2003)
  • The Marketing Mix At Tesco
    A film taking a critical look at the advertising and marketing strategy of Britain’s largest retailer.Commissioned by TV Choice.(31 mins BetaSP 2003)


  • One Man and His Island
    A film about the declaration of independence by residents of the Isle of Dogs in 1970, seen through the eyes of community leader Ted Johns.(40 mins BetaSP 2002)
  • Not In My Name
    A documentary exploring the background to the war in Afghanistan and charting the growth of the anti-war movement.(41 mins BetaSP/DVCam 2002)
  • Systems In Retailing
    A Marks & Spencer case study.Commissioned by TV Choice.(25 mins BetaSP 2002)
  • Systems In Travel
    Two contrasting case studies.Commissioned by TV Choice.(24 mins BetaSP 2002)
  • Marketing Holidays
    The experience of two very different UK travel firms.Commissioned by TV Choice.(34 mins BetaSP 2002)
  • Manufacturing In The West Midlands
    How has manufacturing influenced the Black Country?For TV Choice.(32 mins BetaSP 2002)


  • The Marketing Mix At Haagen-Dazs
    Explores the competitive UK luxury ice-cream market.Commissioned by TV Choice.(32 mins BetaSP 2001)
  • The Impact of Tourism IV: The Gambia
    How tourism affects one of the world’s poorest countries.For TV Choice.(33 mins BetaSP 2001)

  • Are We Making a Profit? & The Balance Sheet Explained

    A step-by-step guide to the profit and loss account and the balance sheet.For TV Choice.(2 x 25 mins BetaSP 2001)
  • The Language Of Advertising
    A programme exploring the impact of advertisements, on TV and in print.For TV Choice.(33 mins BetaSP 2001)
  • How A Factory Works
    How a UK cooker manufacturer introduced a new production process and a new way of working.Commissioned by TV Choice.(31 mins BetaSP 2001)
  • Socialist Labour Party Election Broadcasts 2001
    with Ricky Tomlinson(3 x 4’ 40″ BetaSP 2001)
  • Inside A Leisure Business
    A film which goes behind the scenes of a major leisure company in the UK.Commissioned by TV Choice.(26 mins BetaSP 2001)
  • What Is Marketing?
    A programme looking at marketing through the eyes of marketeers, experts, consumers and critics.For TV Choice.(32 mins BetaSP 2001)
  • The Cinema: from “flea pit” to multiplex
    A video which goes inside the biggest mutliplex in Britain – the Film Works in Manchester.Commissioned by TV Choice.(25 mins BetaSP 2001)
  • Behind The Adverts, the language of persuasion
    A programme for TV Choice questioning advertising and underlining the need for a critical view.(35 mins BetaSP 2001)
  • Systems In A Cinema
    A video showing how computer technology is used in the cinema. Commissioned by TV Choice.(29 mins BetaSP 2001)


  • Who Killed Mark Faulkner?
    A three part forensic and social investigation into the death and life of a young homeless epileptic man, made for BBC2 and transmitted in December 2000.(3 x 40 mins BetaSP/DVCam 2000)
  • Children and Disability
    An insert for the BBC2 Disability Programmes Unit’s: From the Edge series.(6 mins BetaSP/DVCam 2000)
  • Lucozade – The Making of an Advert
    A film for GCSE and A level students which looks at the re-marketing of the convalescence drink of the ‘60s as an aid to fitness in the ‘80s, and more recently targetting the youth market using the computer generated icon Lara Croft.Commissioned by TV Choice.(32 mins BetaSP 2000)
  • Pricecheck – The Fight for Union Rights
    A film about the year-long campaign of Asian shop-workers at Pricecheck supermarkets in London who joined the Transport & General Workers Union in December 1998 to fight for decent wages and conditions. Despite the sacking and demotion of union activists, a recognition agreement was signed in December 1999(20 mins DV 2000)
  • Inside A Travel Business
    A drama-documentary made for schools and colleges telling the story of a firm faced with a changing business environment attempting to make critical decisions about its future.Commissioned by TV Choice.(35 mins BetaSP 1999)


  • Old Hands – British Labour Camps 1929-39
    A film about the 150,000 long term unemployed men from ‘distressed areas’ who were sent to do hard task work in remote labour camps for the unemployed, set up and run by successive British governments between 1929-1939. Dave Colledge, a Leeds social historian, acts as the researcher/detective in the film, visiting sites of former camps and interviewing veterans. The film includes archive footage from a Central Office of Information film promoting the camps made by Edgar Anstey in 1936. Commissioned by Writers Republic with financial support from UNISON.(35 mins BetaSP 1999)
  • Outlaw War – New Labour and the Kosovo Crisis
    A film made for the Committee For Peace in The Balkans and distributed by TV Choice.(45 mins BetaSP/DV 1999)
  • Marxism ‘99
    A record of a debate between Tony & Carolyn Benn. and members of the SWP including Lindsay German on the history and future of the Labour Party.Commissioned and distributed by TV Choice.(42 mins Beta SP 1999)
  • October Revolution
    A film made for the BBC2 Disability Programmes Unit’s: From The Edge series which looks at the second phase of Part III of the Disability Discrimination Act, described by Margaret Hodge, Minister for Disabled People, as representing a “high-street revolution” for disabled people.(8’ 30″ DV 1999)
  • Health and Safety in the Office
    An educational film aimed at students on business studies and industrial courses, trade union members and any organisation trying to work out a health and safety policy.Commissioned by TV Choice.(35 mins BetaSP 1999)
  • Socialist Labour Party European Parliamentary Election Broadcasts 1999(3 x 4’ 40″ BetaSP 1999)
  • National Identity
    A film made for the lobbying company Shandwick to introduce a presentation and discussion on what it means to be English, Scottish and Welsh.(6 mins BetaSP/VHS 1999)
  • Socialist Labour Party Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly Election Broadcasts 1999
    (2 x 4’ 40″ BetaSP 1999)
  • Homeless Disabled
    A film made for the BBC2 Disability Programmes Unit’s: From The Edge series which documents the lives of six disabled homeless people and examines how those in priority need can end up sleeping rough.(28 mins DV 1999)
  • Marketing a Service
    A video for GCSE students which looks at the marketing strategies of the Co-op Bank, Amnesty International and the AA.Commissioned by TV Choice.(35 mins BetaSP 1999)
  • Niche Marketing in the Sportswear Business
    A programme for GCSE marketing students linked to the National Curriculum.Commissioned by TV Choice.(35 mins BetaSP 1999)


  • Mark Faulkner 1973 -1998
    A film for the BBC2 Disability Programmes Unit’s: From The Edge series, on the life and death of a young homeless epileptic man.(10 mins DV 1998)
  • Green Party Local Election Party Political Broadcast 1998
    (4’ 40″ BetaSP 1998)
  • Cadbury’s Marketing Case Study: the launch of ‘Fuse’
    A programme for GCSE marketing students.Commissioned by TV Choice.(35 mins BetaSP 1998)


  • Sticks and Stones
    An insert on language and disability for the BBC2 Disability Programmes Unit’s: From The Edge series.(13 mins BetaSP 1997)
  • Urgent Action Saves Lives
    A programme commissioned by Amnesty International and designed to re-energise and expand their Urgent Action network. Five different language versions have been produced of what was Amnesty’s best-selling video ever.(25 mins BetaSP 1997)


  • Green Party General and Local Election Party Political Broadcasts 1997
    (2 x 4’ 40″ BetaSP 1997)
  • Where Do You Want To Go Today?
    A two part programme on disability and the internet made for the BBC2 Disability Programmes Unit’s: From the Edge series.(2 x 12 mins BetaSP 1996)
  • Coming Out
    A film about coming out as disabled at work for the BBC2 Disability Programmes Unit’s: From the Edge series.(15 mins BetaSP 1996)


  • Stand Up Link Arms
    A short film on trade unions and disability for the BBC2 Disability Programmes Unit’s: From the Edge series.(12 mins BetaSP 1995)


  • Their World This Time
    A film on the post-war squatting movement and the requisitioning of private property to house the homeless. Made with former tenants of requisitioned property in Montague Street, Holborn and with the assistance of the British Universities Film and Video Council and Unity Theatre Trust.(35 mins Beta 1994)


  • Hillview
    A campaign video on short-life housing made for the Camden-based single homeless organisation SCH.(25 mins Beta/Hi-band 1993)
  • Proud Arabs and Texan Oilmen
    A programme on the background to and consequences of the 1991 Gulf War made for Channel Four’s: Critical Eye series.(52 mins BetaSP/dvd 1993)


  • The People’s Flag
    A five part series on British labour movement history for Channel Four’s: The Eleventh Hour.(5 x 60 mins 16mm 1986-88)
  • The Miners’ Campaign Tapes
    In 1984 a group of independent film and video makers including Platform Films decided to show their support for the miners’ strike. These are the videos they produced, a testimony to solidarity and activism, tackling issues which continue to occupy us today: the right to demonstrate, police tactics, political double-speak and the role of the media. Winners of the 1985 Grierson documentary award.(6 tapes, total running time: 90 mins various video formats 1984/5)
  • The Cause of Ireland
    A feature-length documentary exploring the divisions within the working class in the North of Ireland. Made for Channel Four’s: The Eleventh Hour, and winner of the 1983 Tyne Award.(104 mins 16mm 1981-3)
  • H Block Hunger Strike
    A film on the hunger strike by Republican prisoners seeking political prisoner status in Long Kesh prison near Belfast in 1981.(20 mins 16mm 1981)
  • Home Soldier Home
    A film in which ex-soldiers speak about their experiences of the policing of the North of Ireland, in British colonies and back in Britain, intercut with extensive footage of the army in action in Belfast, Aden, Kenya and Aden. It argues the case that the ‘professional’ military is open to right wing political manipulation.(40 mins 16mm/dvd 1978)
  • Sticks and StonesAn insert on language and disability for the BBC2 Disability Programmes Unit’s: From The Edge series.(13 mins BetaSP 1997)
  • Urgent Action Saves LivesA programme commissioned by Amnesty International and designed to re-energise and expand their Urgent Action network. Five different language versions have been produced of what was Amnesty’s best-selling video ever.(25 mins BetaSP 1997)